There’s really only one: observe.
Observe the self, observe the mind, observe thought, observe emotion, observe the sense-of-I-am. With honesty.
Leonarda da Vinci said “There are three classes of people: those who see, those who see when they are shown, those who do not see.”
It seems the suggestion of self-observation and self-honesty is met with these three reactions. Some people are already seeing. Some don’t quite understand yet, but are open and sincere. This is how I reacted on the first reading of Eckhart Tolle’s Power of Now. Something important was said but I didn’t completely understand, and it was three years later that I understood and began looking inside.
And some people, a few, react as the flat-earthers did, with irrational volatility. The ego does not want to be looked at. The suggestion to do so can bring about irrational, insincere, immature, vehement, dogmatic, disproportionately emotional reactions–and it might sound like I’m being overly dramatic, except that I have recently witnessed just this.
Observing thoughts is a pretty good way to start. Observe thoughts dispassionately, as a witness, and with some practice, thoughts will separate and slow down. Observe the space between thoughts. Observe the quiet.
Observing emotions is a pretty good way to understand how emotions work and how to let go. Use this release technique.
And observing you, just the you-ness of you, the simple act of bringing attention to what it feels like to be you, is probably the most powerful technique I have come across. John Sherman is pretty good at explaining it.
Awakening is self-observation and self-honesty.